Version: 3.2.13

Java Rule Automation

This addon allows writing rules in Java and provides support for code-completion for most IDEs.

All paths referenced in this document are relative to the <openhab-config-directory>/automation. This is /etc/openhab/automation on most Linux systems and c:\openhab-3.1.0\conf\automation or similar on Windows systems. The addon creates all needed directories during startup.

Version specific information

Due to limitations/bugs in the openHAB core, there are some points you should know:

These issues have been fixed in openHAB versions >= 3.2.0.M2.

Setup And Configuration

For supporting ease of development a core-dependency.jar is created in the lib/java directory. This includes the exported classes from javax.measure.unit-api, org.openhab.core, org.openhab.core.automation, org.openhab.core.model.script, org.openhab.core.thing, org.openhab.core.persistence, org.ops4j.pax.logging.pax-logging-api and org.smarthomej.automation.javarule. In most cases this is sufficient and provides all core data types, items, things and core actions (including persistence). If you need to expose additional classes, you can add them using the additionalBundles configuration option.

During startup the bundle first compiles the dependency-bundle and then creates the helper libraries (see below).

If you use an IDE for development, you should add core-dependency.jar and javarule-dependency.jar to your class path. In IntelliJ IDEA this is named Add as Library.

Rule Development

All scripts need to provide a class that inherits from org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.rules.JavaRule. Please note that you need to import this class if your rule is not residing in the same package (which is the case in the examples below).

If the script is evaluated, the runScript method is executed. The default implementation of runScript scans all methods in the class for annotations and creates corresponding triggers, conditions and rules (see below). In case all triggers and conditions are set by other means (e.g. the UI) and you just want to execute some code, you have to override that method and place actual code there.

Input values

For UI defined scripts you can find information about the trigger in the Map<String, Object> ctx field. Rules defined using annotations can use a Map<String, Object> input parameter containing e.g. the trigger information.


Helper Library

The javarule-dependency.jar contains several classes to ease the development of rules and prevent unnecessary errors.

The org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.Items class contains String constants for all items. It is re-generated if items are added or removed. You can use is at all places where you would normally put the item name e.g. instead of postUpdate("MySwitchItem", OFF); you could use postUpdate(Items.MySwitchItem, OFF). This allows code completion (if your IDE supports it) and reduces the risk of typos.

The org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.Things class contains String constants for all things. It is re-generated if things are added or removed. You can use is at all places where you would normally put the thing UID e.g. instead of actions.get("deconz", "deconz:deconz:1234abcd"); you could use actions.get("deconz", Things.deconz_deconz_1234abcd). This allows code completion (if your IDE supports it) and reduces the risk of typos.

Additional classes are generated for each thing action (see below).

Personal Libraries

Re-using code is one of the great advantages of Java. You can create custom classes by putting the corresponding .java-file in the lib/java folder. A class named Own in package needs to be

Not following these conventions might result in failure to start the script engine. The classes generated from this code are also part of the javarule-dependency.jar.

Additional 3rd party Libraries

You can use additional libraries (that are not available within openHAB) by putting a JAR-file in the lib/java folder. They are automatically picked up and made available when compiling the rules. You have to add them to the classpath of your IDE to allow code completion.

The JavaRule Class

Rules classes must inherit from the JavaRule class. This class provides some fields needed for development, as explained in the official JSR-223 documentation.

The documented fields for ON, CLOSED, etc. are not present, since the corresponding core OnOffType, OpenClosedType, etc. are available.

In addition, you can use

Besides the runScript method above, there are two methods that can be overridden:

Methods/fields not mentioned in this documentation are for internal use only and should not be used in rules. This currently applies to the method name run.


Annotations are used to mark special methods as rules in stand-alone files. Rules, triggers and conditions are defined by annotation methods in the class inherited from JavaRule. All triggers and some conditions (see below) can be repeated.


Each individual rule has to be annotated with the @Rule annotation.

There are two optional parameters: name and disabled.

The name is used for some logging, if it is not present or empty, the method name is used. You should use unique rule names, but this is not enforced by the addon.

The disabled parameter enables or disables a rule. If set to true, the method will be ignored (similar to methods without @Rule annotation). The default value is false.

Event Based Triggers

Time Based Triggers

Other Triggers

Time Based Conditions

Other Conditions

The @GenericCompareCondition and @ItemStateCondition can be repeated. In that case, all conditions need to be true.


Core Actions

All core actions (Log, Voice, Exec, HTTP, Things, Audio) are available with their names. They can be used like Log.logInfo("Test topic", "My log message");

Binding/Thing Actions

Thing actions can be used similar to the way described in the JSR-223 documentation. A field actions is available in the JavaRule class. The only available method in that class is get(String scope, String thingUid). The returned value is null (if either the scope is unknown, the thing not present or no actions are defined for that thing in the given scope). Non-null values are of type Object and need a type-cast before usage. Calling the permitJoin action on Deconz bridge things would look like

BridgeActions bridgeAction = (BridgeActions) actions.get("deconz", "deconz:deconz:00212E040ED9");
if (bridgeAction != null) {

If you don't know the correct action class, look into the javarule-dependency.jar.

Sharing variables between rules

The easiest way to achieve this is to put all rules in the same .java file and declare a field in the class.

Another option to create a class in the proper folder under lib/java (see above). A public static member of that class is then accessible as import in other rules. But take care: the value of the variables are not persisted, if the libraries (and subsequently the rules) reload, the value is reset.

package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

public class Shared {
    public static int COUNTER;
package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

import static org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.Shared.COUNTER;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.Rule;

public class TestRule extends JavaRule {
    public void counter() {
        // do something else


The "hello world" rule

The following logs the "Hello World!" message every minute at INFO level using the core Log action.

package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

import org.openhab.core.model.script.actions.Log;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.GenericCronTrigger;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.Rule;

public class TestRule extends JavaRule {

    @Rule(name = "Hello World") 
    @GenericCronTrigger(cronExpression = "0 0/1 * * * *") 
    public void helloWorld() {
        Log.logInfo("Test Rule", "Hello World!");


Using the voice action as doorbell

Announce via the core voice action that the state of the DoorBellSwitch item's state changed to ON. The condition ensures that the kids will not wake up, because the rule only triggers between 07:00 in the morning and 22:00 in the evening.

package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

import org.openhab.core.model.script.actions.Voice;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.Items;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.ItemStateUpdateTrigger;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.Rule;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.TimeOfDayCondition;

public class DoorBell extends JavaRule {

    @Rule(name = "Ring the bell") 
    @ItemStateUpdateTrigger(itemName = Items.DoorBellSwitch, state = "ON") 
    @TimeOfDayCondition(startTime = "07:00", endTime = "22:00") 
    public void doorbell() {
        Voice.say("Attention, someone rang the bell!");


Send a value if rule triggers on item

If the item Presence changes to ON (someone is in the house) the heating set point is set to 20 ??C, if the item changes to OFF (everybody left), it is reduced to 17 ??C to save energy. A warning is logged if an unexpected value is received.

package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

import org.openhab.core.library.types.OnOffType;
import org.openhab.core.library.types.QuantityType;
import org.openhab.core.model.script.actions.Log;
import org.openhab.core.types.State;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.Items;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.ItemStateChangeTrigger;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.Rule;

import java.util.Map;

public class Thermostat extends JavaRule {

    @Rule(name = "Standby Switch") 
    @ItemStateChangeTrigger(itemName = Items.Presence) 
    public void standby(Map<String, Object> input) {
        State newState = (State) input.get("newState");
        if (OnOffType.ON.equals(newState)) {
            sendCommand(Items.HeatingSetpoint, new QuantityType<>("20??C"));
        } else if (OnOffType.OFF.equals(newState)) {
            sendCommand(Items.HeatingSetpoint, new QuantityType<>("17??C"));
        } else {
            Log.logWarn("Thermostat", "unknown new state {}", newState);


Adjust Set Point Value

If the item SetpointButton receives a command, the value of the HeaterSetpoint item is increased (ON) or decreased (OFF) by 1 ??C.

package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

import org.openhab.core.library.types.OnOffType;
import org.openhab.core.library.types.QuantityType;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.Items;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.ItemCommandTrigger;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.Rule;

import javax.measure.quantity.Temperature;

public class Thermostat extends JavaRule {

    @Rule(name = "Adjust Heater Set Point") 
    @ItemCommandTrigger(itemName = Items.SetpointButton) 
    public void adjustSetPoint() {
        QuantityType<Temperature> oldState = items.get(Items.HeaterSetpoint).as(QuantityType.class);
        QuantityType<Temperature> step = OnOffType.ON.equals(input.get("state")) ? new QuantityType<>("1 ??C") : new QuantityType<>("-1 ??C");
        events.postUpdate(Items.HeaterSetpoint, oldState.add(step));

Heating PID controller

This requires the PID Controller automation addon. For the description of the parameters see the addon documentation. The rule itself coerces the command from the trigger to the allowed range 0-255 (depends on the allowed values for valve control) and sends it to the valve controlling item.

package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.GenericAutomationTrigger;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.Rule;

public class HeatingController extends JavaRule {
            params = {"input=" + Items.LivingRoomTemperature, "setpoint=" + Items.LivingRoomSetpoint, 
                    "loopTime=300000", "kp=32", "ki=2.67", "kd=0"})
    public void livingRoom(Map<String, ?> input) {
        // get the value from the trigger
        int control = ((DecimalType) input.get("command")).intValue();
        // coerce to range 0 - 255
        control = Math.max(0, Math.min(control, 255));
        events.sendCommand(Items.LivingRoomValve, new Decimaltype(control));

Sleep timer

This realizes a slowly fading light. A press on button initiates a trigger which executes the rule itself. If the sleep timer is already running, the trigger is ignored. The current state of the Night_Light is divided by 20 to get 20 equal steps. A task is scheduled with a delay of 30s.

The task takes the current light state, decreases the brightness by the calculated step and sends a command to the light. If the brightness is still greater than 0, the task is re-scheduled. If the light is off, the future is removed from the task list.

If the rule is removed or reloaded, the task is removed automatically because all tasks in the futures map are cancelled.

package org.smarthomej.automation.javarule;

import org.openhab.core.library.types.PercentType;
import org.openhab.core.model.script.actions.Log;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.ChannelEventTrigger;
import org.smarthomej.automation.javarule.annotation.Rule;

import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Objects;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class Bedroom extends JavaRule {
    private static final String LOGGER_NAME = Bedroom.class.getName();

    private static final String NIGHT_LIGHT_FUTURE = "dimDown";
    private static final int NIGHT_LIGHT_DELAY = 30;
    private double lightStateStep = 0.0;

    private void dimDown() {
        double lightState = Objects.requireNonNullElse((PercentType) items.get(Items.Schlafzimmer_Lampe_Jan),
                PercentType.ZERO).doubleValue() - lightStateJanStep;

        if (lightState < 0.0) {
            lightState = 0.0;
        events.sendCommand(Items.Night_Light, new PercentType((int) lightState));

        if (lightState > 0) {
            futures.put(NIGHT_LIGHT_FUTURE, scheduler.schedule(this::dimDown, NIGHT_LIGHT_DELAY, TimeUnit.SECONDS));
        } else {

    @ChannelEventTrigger(channelUID = "deconz:switch:cee86e78:000b57fffec72211000000:buttonevent", event = "1002")
    public void nightLight() {
        double lightState = Objects.requireNonNullElse((PercentType) items.get(Items.Night_Light), PercentType.ZERO)

        lightStateStep = lightState / 20.0;

        if (futures.containsKey(NIGHT_LIGHT_FUTURE)) {
            Log.logDebug(LOGGER_NAME, "Trigger ignored");
        } else {
            futures.put(NIGHT_LIGHT_FUTURE, scheduler.schedule(this::dimDown, NIGHT_LIGHT_DELAY, TimeUnit.SECONDS));